After the commissioning of the world’s first two LD steel plants in Linz and Donawitz, the LD process soon gained a foothold elsewhere. The Austrian steel. LD process. 1. By ARI MGIT; 2. The name LD stands for Linz and Donawitz, these were the two places in Austria where the. A process for making steel from cast iron; it resembles the Bessemer process except for two important differences: (1) oxygen is used rather than air and (2).

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Webarchive template wayback links Wikipedia articles with NDL identifiers. Austrian inventions Metallurgical processes Steelmaking Swiss inventions.

And a special reason for voestalpine to celebrate — for that is when this state-of-the-art company was founded. In the s steelmakers introduced bottom-blown converters and introduced inert gas blowing for stirring the molten metal and removing the phosphorus impurities.

It then has to be converted into steel which has controlled quantities of carbon and much reduced concentrations of impurities.

The LD converter, named after the Austrian towns Linz and Donawitz a district of Leoben is a refined version of the Bessemer converter where blowing of air is replaced with blowing oxygen. This was an important and major event for everyone involved, and also the start of the triumphant advance of the LD process: The basic oxygen process developed donawiz of traditional “big steel” environment.


In this, high-pressure oxygen is blown at the molten pig iron using a water-cooled lance.

The First Commercial Linz-Donawitz Basic Oxygen Converter (Pig Iron to Steel)

By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Transforming the twentieth century: Modern furnaces will take a charge of iron of up to tons [4] and convert it into steel in less than 40 minutes, compared to 10—12 hours in an open hearth furnace.

In the original LD process oxygen was blown over the top of the molten iron through the water-cooled nozzle of a vertical lance. Retrieved from ” https: The basic nature of linzz flux helps remove phosphorus so there is a greater tolerance to the raw materials used in the process.

Steel produced using the LD process is characterized by its purity and that it is fully recyclable — retaining its type and without loss of quality. This page was last edited on 23 Octoberat Send an e-mail to innovation voestalpine.

It was developed and refined by a single man, Swiss engineer Robert Durrer, and commercialized by two small steel companies in allied-occupied Austriawhich had not yet recovered from the destruction of World War II. The Making, Shaping and Treating of Steel: In the Soviet Union, some experimental production of steel using the process was done inbut industrial use domawitz hampered by lack of efficient technology to produce liquid oxygen.

Bessemer realised that forcing air through molten steel would oxidise impurities in the pig iron and raise the metal temperature without the need for additional fuel, i.


Views Read Edit View history. In other projects Wikimedia Commons. His invention nearly failed in that some of the iron ores used by those who applied the idea found the iron to contain larger quantities of sulphur and phosphorus, leading to very poor properties. It is only due to this process that certain grades of steel or steel applications are even possible — e.

History of Industrial Gases First ed. Low hydrogen Short circuit. Between andlabor requirements in the industry decreased by a factor of 1, from more than three man-hours process metric ton to just 0. A milestone in the history of steel production. The LD process quickly attracted international interest, and new marketing channels were developed. Modern converters are fully automated with auto blowing patterns and sophisticated control systems.

Linz-Donawitz converter

When iron is produced from the ore in a blast furnace, it is rich in carbon and also contains many impurities. Earlier converters, with a false bottom that can be detached and repaired, are still in use. Bessemer process Open hearth furnace Electric arc furnace Basic oxygen process. The lance used for blowing has undergone changes.