In this tutorial, I’ll discuss each and everything related to PIC16F84a, so you don’t have to wrestle your mind for browsing the internet and find. PIC Microcontroller 16F Tutorial Index PIC 16F84 Introduction Introduction of PIC microcontroller, Pin description and applications. PIC Reset and Oscillator. Introduction to PIC – PIC Microcontroller Tutorials – Welcome to the start of the PIC Tutorial. Below is a diagram showing the pin-outs of the PIC 16F We will.

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Its general structure is shown on the following map representing basic blocks.

It is usually used for storing important data that must not be lost if power supply suddenly stops. For instance, one such data is an assigned temperature in temperature regulators. If during a loss of power supply this data was lost, we would have to make the adjustment once again upon return of supply. Thus our device looses on self-reliance. RAM – data memory used by a program during its execution. In RAM are stored all inter-results or temporary data during run-time.

Port A has five, and port B has eight pins. On every fourth clock of the oscillator it increments its value until it reaches the maximumand then it starts counting over again from zero. As we know the exact timing between each two increments of the timer contents, timer can be used for measuring time which is very useful with some devices. It coordinates the work of other blocks and 61f84 the tutoriall program. This term is often found in computer literature, and it needs to be explained here in more detail.

Harvard architecture is a newer concept than von-Neumann’s. It rose out of the need to speed up the work of a microcontroller. In Harvard architecture, data bus and address bus are separate.

Microcontroller pic16f84 – Pic tutorial – Tutorials

Thus a greater flow of data is possible through the central processing unit, and of course, a greater speed of work. Separating a program from data memory makes it further tutodial for instructions not to have to be 8-bit words.


PIC16F84 uses 14 bits for instructions which allows for all instructions to be one word instructions. It is also typical for Harvard architecture to have fewer instructions than von-Neumann’s, and to have instructions usually executed in one cycle. Intel’s and Motorola’s microcontrollers have over hundred instructions All of these instructions are executed in one cycle except for jump and branch instructions. According to what its maker says, PIC16F84 usually reaches results of 2: PIC16F84 perfectly fits many uses, from automotive industries and controlling home appliances to industrial instruments, remote sensors, electrical door locks and safety devices.

Introduction to PIC Microcontroller

It is also ideal for smart cards as well as for battery supplied devices because of its tjtorial consumption. EEPROM memory makes tutorail easier to apply microcontrollers to devices where permanent storage of various parameters is needed codes for transmitters, motor speed, receiver frequencies, etc.

Low cost, low consumption, easy handling and flexibility make PIC16F84 applicable even in areas where tuforial had not previously been considered example: In System Programmability of this chip along with using only two pins in data transfer makes possible the flexibility of a product, after assembling and testing have been completed.

This capability can be used to create assembly-line production, to store calibration data available only after final testing, or it can be used to improve programs on finished products. If we want to compare a microcontroller with a time clock, our “clock” would then be a ticking sound we hear from the time clock.

In that case, oscillator could be compared to a spring that is wound so time clock can run. 116f84, force used to wind the time clock can be compared to an electrical supply.

Clock from the oscillator enters a microcontroller via OSC1 pin where internal circuit of a microcontroller divides the clock into four even clocks Q1, Q2, Q3, and Q4 which do not overlap.

These four clocks make up one instruction cycle also called machine cycle during which one instruction is executed. Execution of instruction starts by calling an instruction that is next in string.

Instruction is called from program memory on every Q1 and is written in instruction register on Q4.


PIC16F84 Fundamentals

Decoding and execution of instruction are done between the next Q1 and Q4 cycles. On the following diagram we can see the relationship between instruction cycle and clock of the oscillator OSC1 as well as that of internal clocks Q1-Q4. Program counter PC holds information about the address of the next instruction. Instruction tutodial consists of cycles Q1, Q2, Q3 and Q4.

Cycles of calling and executing instructions are connected in such a way that in order to make a call, one instruction cycle is needed, and one more is needed for decoding and execution. However, due to pipelining, each instruction is effectively executed in 16t84 cycle.

If instruction causes a change on program counter, and PC doesn’t point to the following but to some other address which can be the case with jumps or with calling subprogramstwo cycles are needed for executing an instruction.

This is so because instruction must be processed again, but this time from the right address. Cycle of calling begins with Q1 clock, by writing into instruction register IR. Decoding and executing begins with Q2, Q3 and Q4 clocks.

This is a good example of an instruction needing more than one cycle. PIC16F84 has a total of 18 pins. SMD is an abbreviation for Surface Mount Devices suggesting that holes for pins to go through when mounting, aren’t necessary in soldering this type of a component.

Pins on PIC16F84 microcontroller have the following meaning: Has no additional function Pin no. Has no additional function.

Interrupt input is an additional function. No additional function Pin no. Applications PIC16F84 perfectly fits many uses, from automotive industries and controlling home appliances to industrial instruments, remote sensors, electrical door locks and safety devices. Pin description PIC16F84 has a total of 18 pins. Post Your Comments Here: Popular tags pic tutorial pic14 instruction set bootloader for pic18f usb eeprom data memory hc